Kathy Joseph from Kathy Loves Physics joins me on The Amp Hour to discuss history and physics and we end up discussing the intricate history of the development of the Cathode Ray Tube.
Read Kathy's Book The Lightning Tamers: https://tinyurl.com/TheLightningTamers
https://www.youtube.com/ @KathyLovesPhysics
Forum: https://www.eevblog.com/forum/blog/eevblog-1577-history-of-cathode-ray-tubes-with-kathy-joseph/
00:00 - Kathy Loves Physics
02:45 - Philo Farnsworth, the farmboy who invented television
10:00 - Professor Julius Plucker & Heinrich Ruhmkorff
11:13 - Heinrich Geissler and Geissler tubes
14:28 - Johann Wilhelm Hittorf
16:15 - William Crookes and the Crookes Radiometer
20:00 - Heinrich Hertz
25:00 - Scintillating Scotoma
27:00 - Philipp Lenard
31:25 - Wilhelm Rontgen
38:45 - Mihajlo Pupin
44:00 - Francis Perrin
49:10 - Henri Becquerel
55:39 - Curie Piezoelectric Quartz Balance Electrometer
1:07:46 - Philco & Bob Pease
1:08:44 - Vladimir Zworykin
1:15:12 - Free Energy & Debunking
https://medium.com/ @johnwelford15/the-canals-of-mars-2a6fcce973c #:~:text=The%20%E2%80%9Coceans%E2%80%9D%20that%20Herschel%20spotted,is%20not%20one%20of%20them!
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Welcome to the Amp Hour I'm Dave Jones from the Eev blog and I'm Kathy Joseph from Kathy L's physics. Hey welcome back Kathy How long's it been? Is it a year? Is it a year? Has it been a year? or I think so. Wow I Yes a year ago says there you go every year we'll make it a yearly thing. Okay I Love that Faray had a Christmas tradition.

We can have a Halloween that's scary Oh no I don't do Halloween no that's an Australian no no Halloween no No, that's a big contention here in Australia No because we're getting infested with all this Americanism you see. so we're trying to avoid Halloween but but but you can have an early November late October like Dis instead a replacement. No one's dressing up as anything. we're just I'm just cracking you up and messing up your entire show.

Great that is. That is your tradition. That is how you get scared by an American Maybe we can wear like Leb coats we can wear like ears. No no no no no, we're dressing like our usual slobs I think I saw your shirt you're wearing.

Um, it's no I'm I'm just a no it's a True Grit Yes it's an obstacle race thing. it's an obstacle racing. see now that's perfect and I'm wearing a t-shirt that I found okay I think that's appropriate I'm dress I was going to wear something but but it's actually cropped off on the shot anyway so it doesn't perfect. I'm dressed as a physicist physicist dressed however they want and engineers dress however they want.

perfect Yes, a tie is a noose for an engineer. Oh my. God you are you kid? Except in the 50s? like except in the 50s and 60s and stuff where you know everyone wore a tie, you know you were like yep, a Pho T Farnsworth who came up with the television got a job so he made the television in my hometown in San Francisco and I don't know if I told you this story no. Tell us please, let's that's what we're here.

You're a Storyteller you're a his historian. that's Storyteller Let's go. We haven't even introduced you. Okay, we haven't But everyone you've got the book Kath uh the the lightning Tamers but that's the whole.

so we did. We covered that book in the last video and we covered all sort of stuff. so listen to that part one so we're going to carry on from that. But anyway Your Story part two we're going to talk about this is going to Co in my book.

my third book. So like you're G have to wait forever for it. So I should tell the story Now about Philo T Farmsworth the farm boy who came up with television because you will love this so he was a B he was born in Utah cuz he had a Mormon his Mormon family and they went on a covered wagon to like I'm gonna say Montana and I'm GNA be wrong and I don't care when he was a kid and their new house had two precious gifts in it. The first thing was it had a generator and the generator always broke so of course he got to take it apart and put it together and take it apart and put it together and then pretty soon his sister was like there were no watches, there were no anything, anything with parts was taken apart and put together and sometimes it was better and sometimes they never saw the watch because that's who he was.
It's very familiar. The attic was filled with Kids magazines that someone had left kids popular science magazines right? So all he did was read all these kid science magazines and take apart thing and take apart their tractor and put it together and blah blah blah blah blah. So he goes to high school and he convinces is the chemistry teacher that even though he's a freshman he should be taking senior chemistry which is the only science class they have right and tutor him after school. So he's reading all these magazines and in it they're talking about how they tried to make a electronic fax like you would shine light through these little holes that you spun and it would go onto the material that would respond electronically to the light.

um and that would change into an electric signal that would be sent wirelessly and then you would recreate the you re reproduce it at the other end. There were quite a few people who did something like that isn't there I Think yeah yeah yeah there was very popular. This was like oh it was a thing. Okay, it was a there were thing that they had managed to do, but it wasn't really.

It was so crude that you're like great. I got a piece. You know this incredibly fuzzy image. Wonderful.

Like it's not really useful No, but it. But it did what you expected even right, right. It was a precursor and in it there was a lot of complaints that like there was a limit to how much you could send right with the the image. It took a long time to get you know if you got too small, blah blah blah blah blah blah blah.

And at the same time there was articles about the cathode ray tube. because of course there's article about the cathode R to there actually people in Germany I think no Russia people in Russia who had done something with a cathode ray tube. scanning the or like getting the image with moving the dots. Yep.

but the problem was that no one could figure out how to get all of these dots in a coherent way to get it from one thing to another. right? And so he's He's working the fields on a freaking horse looking at these wheat. Fields I Think it's wheat. It's in my head as wheat, so it's going down as right.

It's wheat. Okay, so it be shall be for all time. Well someone can look up a book on F This is off the top of my head and I did not prepare. So if the details are wrong, right? that's all right.

You are going to put up with it. Um, it's not my fault, it's not on purpose. Anyway, field on this horse looking at these fields of Wheat and they're in rows and it looks like an image with the wind blowing on them. It looks like a moving image.

right? and he goes I Have it. I Have it. We don't need dots. We need rows, right? We need rows images.
Yeah, and that's how the data. It will look like a full picture if we just have rows of bright and dark. And you can control the movement of the cathode ray with electromagnets. Yes, because it's move and and you can include change the intensity of it with the strength of the voltage in front of the tube.

You can make it brighter and darker and then you control the image you make and you can control the image you get you made television. So he goes on his horse to the see the teacher. He puts all this stuff on the board. the teacher comes in and he says I've made it I've made an electric all Electric television and his teacher goes um um what's that you did He even use the word tell ision back then CU yes that was actually a term or he it was created by Alexander Grell Alexander Granell was the grandson linguis and like famous linguist like remember my Fair Lady oh I know of it but okay in my fair lady, it's about a mean linguist and it was based on a book sorry a play called pigmon which was partially based on Alexander Gran Bell's grandfather who and father who were cranky linguists snotty linguists I guess and so anyway he came up with the term telephone and television and all sorts of things because he wanted to do this.

it just he didn't get anywhere. You're right, Well he got kind, he did something that was sort of something but it it never went anywhere. So they did have the the term television so he legit said I've made an all El Electric television and his and his teacher said this is great I think I have no idea what you're doing but it looks good. That's right, that's right because they they had mechanical televisions before that didn't they? That's right, they had mechanical television.

those little yes with the slots and the or something or the little holes in them and and they got better by the 30s I think or 20s. yeah something like that all Electric television. Okay so so what did C you said the CIT tube was around then right it was around. It was a thing.

So what were they doing with CIT tubes? Was it just an oscilloscope thing or was it no the the first use after. So the first thing they did with it was it was 1850s I Think there was this guy in Germany named Plucker Professor Professor Plucker and Professor Plucker had a friend in France named rumor and rumor had made this coil induction coil machine that could make a really really really big voltage really big spark and Plucker said hey, what happens if I put that really high voltage on a vacuum tube filled with a little bit of gas Because obviously right? Well no because in um, like uh, in the time of like Benjamin Franklin had a rival named um AB Nole and no would do these crazy experiments for the king of France including taking tubes, evacuating it, putting in a little gas, and putting it on a static electricity machine and letting it Glow and putting your hands on it. Sort of like um, you know those ball plasma ball things. Yeah they are things exactly like plasma ball things.
So Plucker knew his history and he's like oh I'll get a plasma ball thing but with high voltage. So he goes glass maker named Geisler if you've ever heard of a Geisler tube. Anyway, yes I think yes Yeah yeah yeah. Geisler made this tube because it's not easy to make a glass tube evacuated.

blah blah blah. He puts the voltage on there and it. GL He says it was indescribably beautiful. but and guys are's like yes it is.

I'm going to make a job out of this. I'm going to sell them the novelty shops and make No shops and that's what he did. It was like early neon light and these things are gorgeous. Oh my gosh um you can look at up Geisler tubes and there's these intricate like they have.

They made these like paintings. oh oh they are beautiful. they looking at that now. so sexy I'm it's just like they're not Neon Lights They're works of art.

Yeah and they put yeah and they put twists and turns in them and they got bulbs at each end and they can form them in different shapes and they found that if you added like phosphorescent materials in there then they would glow more inside there. So it became a big thing and Plucker figured out if you put a magnet near it, you bent the light, you bent it so he's like right, wait a minute, how do you bend light? What the hell is this thing? But then it. It just sat there doing nothing else and then like 10 years later he had a student a former student who was playing with vacuum tubes and realized his vacuum pump sorry vacuum pump would form Bubbles and he's like well, that's a really crappy vacuum And then he realized he needed to chemically treat the glass because it had water in the glass and this is where the phosphor coding comes from is do do vacuum tubes have no You mean on the no I thought on the inside. okay no no that came from Edison Oh okay, oh right, we're not there.

Yeah, oh god. Oh so int I'm I'm glad you know the history intricate. The thing about physics is to me when you tell the story of physics, it's almost like a musical. It's like incom incomp.

you cannot believe how freaking complic parts and then when you C it together, it's this weird story where everyone's like hey, it worked out and then we put on a play and here's the television. That's how I think of it. I'm obsessed with musical so it kind of worked out in the that way because you know there are no physicists with normal brains. that would be that would be wrong that they're not a physicist.

if if you ever meet one who like seems totally normal. Yep, that they probably not a very good physicist. No, the same with Engineers if you're like oh I met that engineer and they seemed really really really normal little dog. Oh my gosh.

Okay so then we get the other person whose name was hitor hitf was this shy guy. He figures out the vacuum pump wasn't working well so he fixes it and once he evacuates it more he realizes that it doesn't glow. but the the little pieces of Flos phosphorescence inside glow and one wall glows and it's the wall opposite the negative electrode right? And when he makes it in different shapes, he can even put a little cross in there and he can see a shadow so he's like it's coming from one side. And since Faraday defined the cathode as where the electricity comes from which they thought was positive, but this one was negative, they're like this is a cathode ray tube.
Ah interesting. I Never thought yeah, I never even like thought of how did that term come about right? That's where it came from and then always made sense because it was like cathod and rays and like. but I never like. When you get into history of it, it's like and now we're messed up.

Of course because. a cathode rate tube. The negative is a cathode, but the battery. the positive is cathode unless you're recharging it.

in which case the negative is the electrod and then everyone's like f you Why are we doing this way? So is this how they discovered that electron flow was the other way? Like this is how we discovered the El R right? Get Ready Get Ready Get Ready, it's coming. My mind's about to explode. Okay, your mind is about to explode. Okay, so there was this guy in England and his name was Crooks a C O O KES and he was a character so large Larger than Life He has a story.

He's from this family of like 12 kids and all he did was chemical experiments. He said the house always smelled terrible and everyone was like this lunatic is going to burn us down or poison us. Nobody knew what to do with this guy and later on in life you have to look up his picture because he has the world's best mustache. It like I saw a cartoon of the man and I'm like oh haaha and then I saw a picture and like he must have turned his head sideways to go through the doors and I mean I I don't know I'm a big fan of oh that's that's yep cuz everyone looks the same I'm trying to memorize thousands of people and you have a good mustache P Yeah it's like an evil mustache but it's just gone past.

it's Salvador Dolly type Yeah yeah yeah. beyond the Beyond I Love William Krooks William KRS is Delight Spent much of his time as the head of every science department and every Department to look for ghosts at the same time he was just like he did, did whatever the hell he wanted and he wanted to do whatever. So anyway he learns about spectroscopy, looking at different lights to figure out what chemicals are, discovers new chemicals, gets obsessed with light. He makes that little thing where it's like um you have black, um, it like a little flags and four Flags One side is white and one side is black and it's in a little vacuum light bulb and you put in the sunline and it spins one way.
Oh yes, yeah yeah right yes I know that I don't know what it's called but yeah it's like is it a sun vein or something? It's like something ve Light ve physics toy. He made this physics toy to show about the energy of light because he felt like that was part of his toys. and when he heard about the vacuum tube and the you know thing he's like oh it's a force state of M matter. It's light that you can move with a magnet, it has weight, it has charge.

It's amazing. He's like he didn't think it was a subatomic particle. He thought it was new set. you know, solid liquid gas and c and this thing right? right? right? right? right? right? But he did all this crazy stuff to prove it.

He made this like little Paddle Wheel in it and then he'd Shine the cathode ray and the Paddle Wheel would move down inside the tube. He had this assistant who was this mechanic extraordinaire and he kept on leaving the little notes like you can do it I know you can do it I'm sure he was doing that because he was asking for impossible impossible builds, right? No one is that nice to their mechanic unless they are asking for the impossible and he would give the talks and people. He would get notes and like his friends would write him like everyone is talking about what you said. He actually gave this big speech in 1900 like we need to make um, nitrogen fertilizer or everyone will starve And and it started the Third Law of Thermodynamics and nitrogen fertilizer and all sorts of good things and bad things.

And it was very, very influential. But anyway, he had this whole big thing. Meanwhile in Germany there was a young man named Hinrich Herz you might have heard of him, might have heard of him I I don't know. It kind of rings a bell.

kind of rings a bell. Anyway, Herz's boss had told him to do an experiment to prove Maxwell Faraday's experiment Equations like the prove the light is an electromagnetic wave and he wrote back and said no, it's too hard I can't do it I'm going to play with vacuum tubes instead. No. Much more fun.

No, that's impossible. No no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no no. So instead he plays with these vacuum tubes. He's like, okay, if it's a charge part, uh, not charge particle a charge.

New form of mass. It should move if you put positive and negative plates. So we put positive and negative plates in there. Nothing happened, didn't move.

Ah, he's like this is clearly a type of light. It's a new magic type of light that you can move with the magnet. So he publishes this. he's doing pretty well.

He's still like his. His wife published his diary after he died and not to be mean because he was so famous and he died so young and his diary entries are all like did nothing all day Still a failure Oh no this year ended. So glad this everything was terrible. Hope next year is better.
Like everyone is like that like I learn nothing I know nothing I'm a fool I'm like app much this is hurts I know right it f his name oh my God plus plus if you've ever been in everyone has been in that situation. Yeah yeah and it's so inspiring. It's so wonderful like that is the that's why she published his diary. She's like hey, have you ever had years where every day is like no, no, no, no no no Well guess what? My husband did it worse.

So anyway, when he met his fiance he was showing her around the lab and he was inspired that a spark from one of these induction coils could create a spark somewhere else, right? And his boss had figured out that if you put a condenser capacitor on these induction coils, which they had known about before, it made an alternating wave, that very high frequency. a pulse of alternating waves. So tank Circuit. It's a tank circuit.

Exactly Exactly So he. but Helm Holtz had come up with the equation for the Tank circuit. that was his boss and he's like oh well, these are vibrating way slower than visible light, but maybe they're forming a form of invisible light. So he's like okay, I'm going to take the induction coil with the tank circuit and I'm going to put everything on it I can think of maybe long sticks do well, maybe giant balls do well I don't know what I'm doing I'm just putting everything on this thing right and then he's like okay, well how do I catch the spark He had a first, he had a a square and then he changed it to a circle.

He had a circle with a tiny little Gap in it and he's like okay, we'll put a giant spark on one side and we'll catch it in the tiny spark on the other side and I will see how strong the signal is by the size of the spark and he's describing it. he like you have to see it in pitch dark. your eye can, it's a barely a millimeter I mean like his description of it is so poetic. like your eyes, you have to be used to the dark.

It's barely perceptible and it's It's almost like it isn't there. But it is is right. You could almost imagine it. If you you could almost like think you see it.

but it's not actually there. it's right right? and yeah you could possibly like see it and then it's not there or or or it could be like who was it Who saw the line? Was it Hersel who saw the lines? who saw the Mars uh canals you know he said just peered through the telescope and he he wrote all these. he got famous because he all these canals on Mars there must be life and civilizations. It turned out it was the veins on the back of his eyeball or something that were the that that's what he was seeing.

He was in the dark for so long he was seeing the veins on the back of his eyes. Apparently that's like that is so cool. Yeah yeah yeah. I mean this is why I'm not an experimentalist.

Seriously like I see little wiggle lines in front of my eyes all the time? Yeah yeah yeah. yep. I've I've I've got um. scintilating suoma I think it's called and occasionally you'll get these people call them floaters but it's a different thing.
It's like a zigzag line. It'll just appear for like 10 minutes. same the same yeah I think I think it's scintilating sacoma I think that's the technical term I don't know. So yeah that's the seeing things.

okay terrible. So anyway um what was I saying So he does that and oh he also figures out a couple more things. One, it reflects. radio waves reflect so he can make a standing wave and by making a standing wave, he could figure out where the nodes were, where the signal got to zero and use that to find the wavelength W length of the light right and he knew the frequency of the light so he could prove the radio waves move at the speed speed of light.

Wow! And he also did one experiment and he's like I'm so sick of this bright light from the initial spark so he's like why don't I cover it I'm doing the radio way I'll just cover the spark and when he covered the spark, the signal went down considerably. What did he cover it with like um I don't know but then he changed it to covering it with he says what if I put glass there he put glass there. it still dimmed it considerably, but he put quartz there and it didn't and he realized that he was the Um ultraviolet light that was having an effect. This is called the photo electric effect effect, right? Which um Einstein won his Nobel prize for the photo electric effect.

Didn't he? well for his research on the photo effect. No, actually it was Herts his lab assistant a guy named Philip Leonard who developed it and then Philip Leonard turned into this giant giant Nazi like publishing articles like Hitler is a gift from the gods, mostly because he got pissed at jealous of Einstein being. oops. this was much later, much much later.

sorry I'm ahead of myself so yeah, Herz discovers radio waves he goes to England to get big Awards guess who he meets there William Krooks with the giant mustache and William Cooks says you are so wrong about the cath ray tube it is clearly a part thing you're doing something wrong and he's like no, I'm not go fact determin he's like okay I'm gonna do some more experiments on the Catholic R tube because clearly the mustache man is wrong, wrong, wrong, wrong, wrong. So one of the things that Crooks did is he had a cathode ray tube, focus on a piece of platinum and heat it up. What Herz did was have it unfocused and go on a very very thin piece of metal so that he would see what happened when it hits something I don't know what his logic was, but that's what he decided to do. what Herz decided to do and what Herz found was that it would.

It was such a thin piece of gold or whatever because usually they like gold because you can make it as thin as possible. yeah you can y yeah and not and if you have the money and it would glow a little bit through the piece of gold but if the gold had little folds in it it would get darker. You could see the Shadows of the folds in the gold and he found that if You put little pieces of things there, it would make a Shadow. It would go through the piece of gold without breaking the gold right and Herz is like okay, 100% this is light only light can go through something and not break it right? 100% light.
But also this is really cool because we can make a little window of a very very thin piece of aluminum or something and then have the cathode ray go through it into a CH ber with a different amount of um, you know, different vacuum cuz they didn't work unless if the vacuum was too good, it didn't work. If it was too good, it didn't work. Yeah, if it was too good, it wouldn't work and they didn't know why. and okay, we're getting there all right.

Well, it didn't work if the vacuum was too good because they didn't know to heat the cathode cathode Le away for the electrons to come boil off. they have to be yeah, but they didn't know that right? So they they need a little bit of air in there. So he came up with that idea. but he was getting sick so he gave it to his student.

Philip Leonard and Phillip Um, he was like oh, I know what I'll do I'll just have a cathode ray tube and put a little aluminum window on the end and have the cathode go into the air instead of going into perfect vacuum. I'll have it go in the air and he holds okay a orescent thing and he coats the whole side of the cathode rate tube because you don't want anything glowing except through the window. He holds up his phosphorescent screen and it glows inches millimeters away from it, not on the surface, a little bit of distance. He's like haha I have 100% proved the cathode rays are a ray of light because it goes through a window and it goes.

It's yeah, yeah and then hurts, dies and Philip Leonard gets busy. you know, traveling all around to try to publish his work and to promote he doesn't get a job, blah blah blah. Meanwhile, another guy in Germany named um, runin, what was his first name Rin I can't remember his first name. It'll come to me be don't look him up, don't look him up.

the surprise, did you look him up I'm I'm getting pumpkins willhelm Ren Oh no no, don't look him up yet. Don't look him up yet. Okay Rankin he's like I'm really interested in this. So he builds a whole bunch of tubes Crooks tubes and hitor tubes and Leonard tubes.

and he takes a Leonard tube coated and he takes a phosphorescent screen made of heavy material instead of light material. I'm not even sure if it was on purpose, it might have just been like that's what he had and he turns on the the machine and the screen glows glows on the side. It glows through everything that coated in it. He holds it in front of the metal part the metal window.

It glows brightly. He starts picking up stuff he has I mean like his paper is like a deck of cards, a piece of wood, a 300 page book I mean clearly he's just picking up everything he has right, holding it in front of it and it's making this Shadow or sometimes a shadow around it and then goes through the material, goes through a 300 page book. It goes through the most powerful Ray he's ever seen and he picks up a piece of a round small piece of lead and he's holding up this piece of lead and waiting and waiting and waiting for the light to go through the lead. And as the light goes through, as he's waiting, he starts to see the light go through his hand but it doesn't go through his bones bones.
Yes, he starts to see the Shadows of the bones in his own hand. Awesome! And he goes home and he says I'm working on something that's going to make everyone say Ranken has gone completely mad Yeah cuz that would be yeah. Imagine saying that you could see inside the human body or something like that you could see a skeleton inside. This would be ghost levels of of like wit.

That's exactly what happened. So he works in secret. He's an amateur photographer so he sees if it will develop film while it's wrapped up and it does. So he invites his wife into the lab, hold her hand there for like 30 minutes because it's a really weak X-ray and for 30 minutes and then they develop it and supposedly she literally she just screams and says I've seen my own death and books right and never walked in that lab again like that's it I'm yeah this this would be evil stuff.

You can imagine people thinking this is just pure witchcraft evil you know and and he calls it he says to for brevity's sake, let's call these x-rays in the first paper. So he publishes this without pictures like right near Christmas. No one pays any attention, but he sends certain copies to different friends including a former student with pictures and one student was having a New Year's or Christmas party and his friend there was the son of the local newspaper person in Vienna I think or so his friend sees these pictures says oh my God raises to his dad and says change the stop the Press literally stop the presses. They didn't have time to include a picture but they made an article that's like w this is um it's the most German article ever written.

This is like this is real German science from a real German scientist it sounds like Jules ver but this is real Germany and by the next day it's picked up by the London press and I think I saw something like two days later from like Kansas like oh wow everyone lost their mind because everyone had one of these Crooks tubes or one of these hitor tubes because Crooks had made it so popular that every physicist had one so they could reproduce it straight away right so you could see it straight away and like everyone could do it supposedly JJ Thompson um according to Ernest Rutherford or JJ Thompson So JJ Thompson was the head of the Cavendish laboratory in England so he said there was a line out the door of rich people dragging their doctor to get them an x-ray and pro them. They said one person found a like shot buck shot left in his way. wow his doctor told him was gone and was like screaming at his doctor. everyone had to leave the room they're like okay I'm not I'm not part of this cuz that's the only where you could get an x-ray is by dragging someone to the physics department and then suddenly everyone is like oh my God everyone needs all this stuff and Edison is like okay we should make this a light bulb because of course he thought we should make this a Edison just yep.
So he's like okay we need a better screen because this one is very dim so he put his muckers. he's like take every chemical you have and shine stuff on it until you get one of the glowes. That was basically his approach to everything was try. He had the world's best stocked lab and he just tried everything until something worked.

Yeah well he have he would he was known for. He did have brilliant ideas. yeah, but then his solution to solving said idea was always just like here's a giant Hyck go through F find the needle Yep, right? right? His idea was brilliant but like his methods was like I don't know. just just do it until you mind bleeds.

And so they did. They made this thing and they would sell it to doctors and to traveling shows. Oh my God There's this one story I Have to tell you the story. Yeah so people made a living traveling for Carnival shows doing xrays.

Oh and one man told a story about this young woman, came to him and spoke, spoke to him very Softly on the side and said excuse me sir I'm about to get married and I'm a little nervous. Would you mind taking a secret x-ray of my fiance and make sure everything works I'll make sure everything works and he's like um, um I'm so sorry honey, but you got to pay the fee. you got to ride the ride to know what to like. No PR xray ain't going to do it and and I'm sure it'll pass straight through that thing she's interested in anyway, right? Like that doesn't work for that, you can't do Secret x-rays No, no no no no.

Actually, this is fascinating. So there was a Serbian engineer named Michael Pupin I'm pretty sure I'm saying his name right and he was working and someone came in who was shot and and he's like, well, if you hold up Edis phosphorescent screen it takes an hour and if you use a film it takes an hour so he's like what if I put the screen on the film and then when he did that it went to a x-ray in you know, a couple minutes y So it was actually Poen who made the medical x-ray because really, you go if you have to lie still for an hour. a medical x-ray is not. No, it's I I Was going to ask that, how do they they do that? The carnival show.

How do you make a carnival show out of that? If it takes so long to process the image, how do they build a show out of? they wouldn't process the image. They would just have a giant screen and you'd stand there for 10 or 20 minutes and then suddenly you could see the bones in your hands. Oh okay, so someone would stand behind the screen, They'd get a volunteer up would they And then they just stand there and they talk about it or whatever or like they used to have these things in shoe shops, shoe shops where um they had you could see the X-ray of your foot. They said it was to buy better shoes but really it was to get you in the store store and they had up to the 70s like oh really well I never saw one but my Mom saw one she said she said it was her favorite part about going to shoe shopping.
Shoe Shop was to get nextra your foot it continuous it would just run all the time and you put your foot in there and you could see your bones wiggling around and you like oh I want these shoes and turns out your feet are very quite impervious to getting foot cancer from x-rays. So oh really people who visited were fine. the shoe salesman down, they wen't so fine. but you know right, history is littered with people yes blah blah blah.

but yeah, um Edison did patent a x-ray machine light bulb which was the worst idea ever. but then he started getting injured by X-rays and his uh assistant actually died from it which is one thing that they blame Edison for which he was actually not guilty in any way. like there's a lot of bad things Edison did this was a really good thing Edison had patents for this Edon had all these ways to make money and he's like no. X-rays are dangerous as hell.

Also, radium, Stay away from it. That stuff scares the hell out of me and no one listened because it looks so cool. But there's lots of reasons to be mad at. Edison this wasn't one of them.

this was him doing the right thing like his assistant got injured and he's like you should quit and his assistant's like no I'm fine I'll use my other arm. it was like oh it was like that part of Monty Python like it's yeah yeah Joh chopped off on the honest to God he just like loses body parts and he's like it's fine and Ed's like I don't think it's fine man that's all right because hardly anyone lived past 40 back then anyway. so you know, right? But also Edison who was really cheap he paid for all his medical bills. He's like you're a hero to science.

he publishes his name, he he like tried to do the right thing and it really makes me mad when people are so black and white they're like well I hate this person for this so I will not acknowledge anything good they do otherwise. yeah. I I get do was on well I mean like Philip Leonard was a freaking Nazi he was a na there like it's not. it's not a euphemism if you publish an article during like the 1930s saying yeah, like 1920s.

he was really early fan but still he did some great science like I can say both things. it's okay anyway so um but but so he killed the X-ray light bulb. but other people had the idea. oh my gosh, instead of using a phosphorescent thing for an x-ray why don't we use it for these Geisler tubes or these, you know, the things with the mercury in it.
We put phosphorescence on the outside and then we'll have a fluorescence tube. and then it took a long time to figure out the ballast I think it's called, but that took a little while, but that's it. Kind of came from medicine. sort of.

Maybe When when did they realize that putting that boil, that putting a heater inside the tube and boiling off the cathode was a thing? Oh, that was much later. see JJ Thompson was like what the hell is going on with the cathode raid tube? I Don't get it like on one hand you can move it with magnet. So someone in France had named Parin had figured out if you divert the beam into a faraday something. um, it's a negatively charged something.

Yeah, okay, so it's negatively charged, but it's not moved by plates. What's going on? He's like there must be something wrong with the plate experiment. There must be something wrong. He's like maybe it has something to do with not being a good vacuum.

Let's up the power of the cathode rate too. He didn't think of eating it though. What he thought of was making the anode into a donut. He made the charge into a ring with a hole in it and then when he did that, he could make it a better vacuum.

And then he figured out that the air in there was acting like a faraday cage and protecting it from moving by the plates. Ah, right. and that was the problem with the plate experiment. Got it? Yes, Because we all know that CRTs work with Magnetic or electric deflection as well.

Yeah, yeah, yeah, but it didn't if there's a little bit of air in there because the Air Act it gets ionized and it acts like a conductor and it protects it under that high voltage. Got it? Gotcha! So once they move the air, he had it going through this. it could move by plate and so what he did was he made an electromagnetic Gauntlet He's like okay I got magnets One Direction I'll put place the other Direction and make it so go straight and because the electric force the magnetic force depends on the speed and the electric force doesn't I can figure out how fast this is going that way and he figures out it goes about a third of the speed of light. He's like that's fast and then he says okay, I'm going to remove one of these forces I think he removes the magnetic and he says so.

The weight is obviously tiny, but the electric force is still pretty strong. Yeah, he says it. it's GNA fall down like a bullet fired off of a horizontal gun I know how fast it's going I know how far it falls I know how far it went I can figure out the force on it because I can figure out the acceleration right and he figures out that the charge and also someone else had done experiments that seemed like the charge was the same as a positive ion I mean same value as a positive hydrogen ion. Yeah, positive hydrogen ion or positive anything ion like a single ion, right? So he's like, okay, the charge is like this.
If that's true, then the mass is tiny. tiny tiny tiny tiny tiny. tiny. like 4,000 times smaller than the hydrogen and hydrogen is tiny tiny tiny.

Yeah. and he does it with a whole bunch of different materials in the anode and they all give the same result. Tiny. He's like everything is full of these and I don't know how to pronounce it because everyone complained.

Corpal Corpses cor Corp corple corle that just. Well, that's how I've heard it. That's how I remember I Trust you 100% I Just it just sounds. Do not trust me on on pronunciation of anything the two of us.

You are going to win because I have an audio processing issue where I can't remember how things are pronounced unless I hear it a bazillion times right and so like I just know how it's written and it's not written like that. really makes me mad. That's why I get German words wrong all the time because like not pronounced the way I'm expecting it to be pronounced with those letters that way like damn it I'm still trying to get the W's right. Um, but anyway, so he calls him.

they're almost quickly called electrons thank God Anyway, they're called electrons like they're in everything like a plum pudding. and then his former student Ernest Rord. and then there's the whole story about the nucleus and the yeah model and all that jazz. Yeah, so um, they that's what they did with cathod Ray tubes before the television.

Wow this is that cool. He say you can have a whole book on just how the cathode ray tube was developed. Oh yeah. seriously the my book that I'm in theory working on I haven't done I think I've written two pages is on called the radium Revolution how Einstein wa Einstein's equals MC squ and C's radium changed our world and the first third is the cathode R to right? Okay, Awesome.

great because you can't talk about radium unless you talk about the X-ray because uranium was discovered because this Frenchman oh I have to tell you this. I'll tell you this another please. Okay okay so there's this guy named Beckel and in France and Beckel and his father were obsessed with fluoresence and phosphorescence things and so when he heard about the X-ray he's like maybe it has something to do with fluoresence and phosphorescence, right? Because they glow inside the cathod ray tube and x-ray Maybe it is something to do with that. So he takes out um, uranium phosphorescent uranium just because randomly he had some.

There was nothing special about uranium and he puts it outside in the sun over a covered piece of photographic plate. And then he after two days, he takes it in. He develops the film and lo and behold, there's a glowing object there. He publishes it like the next day.
Physicists used to have guts back in the day. Now they are spineless cowards. Did I say that out loud? Yes, yes, academic. she's calling you out.

Academia You guys are spineless. Spin. Publish and be damned. Publish and be damned.

Publish and be damned. Yes. Oh my. God What if someone takes it? Yes, that's good.

Get off your buing, do something. I'm that's how I started I Always say that is my attitude to how I got started in this publishing. Be damn because I uploaded my first video quickly I Talked about this before up and it's awful. It's horrible.

It's the worst thing I've ever produced I Thought it was embarrassing but I went. You know, publish and be damned. So I published it and I and this is now my job, right? Probably should be damned. I You've seen my video I'm still proud of my first one.

It's but yeah yeah yeah, yeah, so am. I I'm I'm I'm Well I'm more proud that I actually released it that I had the guts to release it than the actual quality of it right for me. I am pleased with it because I had already started writing my book for a year before I started my video. so the I had put in so much intellectual work in into it that it had a lot of substance.

But I don't make it perfect before I publish it Sometimes I have like an hour long video or two an hour. It's long. It takes me months. but I am not an obsessive perfectionist.

I am just like it needs to be good. Yes, it just needs to be good enough. Publish and then go on to the next thing. But if you kind of something good, you publish it the next day.

Yeah, you can publish it. They you put it out when it is and you say what you want to do with it. So if someone else sees it, they can do it first. Exactly because the whole point is to get other people to do things.

I'm making this whole video on the poetic kindness of physics versus the dull cruelty of pseudo science. and the whole thing is please do something with my please do Something with My goddamn work. Please please please please please please please please please pleas Please please please please yes. Do something.

Talk to me. Tell me I'm wrong, Argue with me, make a video, Do something and everyone's like you're the greatest and I'm like great. Thanks for that. But do something.

Follow it up. Yeah, it's exactly but I can't do it alone. Yeah, Yep. sorry.

Anyway, very oh my. God So what was I saying? Oh so he publishes this. Then it's cloudy and he was going to do something about this. uranium had to be prepared and then it lost its phosphorescence.

It was a special kind of thing so he prepared it. but there was no sunlight. so he just put it in a drawer and then two days later it wasn't as phosphorescent anymore and it was still cloudy. So he's like fine.
I'll just develop the film. It'll be like a prove that it's the sunlight working right? you know? Baseline And it was just as bright as the one he had had in sunlight. It wasn't the sunlight, it was the uranium. It was the uranium.

Or yep, yeah, no, pure uranium. wasn't Ur Pure. Oh okay, it was right. It was it.

Pure Urani. refined, okay, and because it was this phosphorescent. So he publishes this and he's like oh my gosh, I Found a new kind of X-ray uranium. Raise uranium, Raise right uranium.

R And he does a few experiments including proving that uranium makes the air electrified a tiny bit and then and then he drops it because they're nowhere near as good as x-rays Like x-rays a uranium Ray of your hand takes forever and you can't see any. it's just your hand is just a mush so he's like okay, well that's kind of cool, but on a go doing something else. Meanwhile Maurice Glosa Cury has her baby and her first baby and her husband had finished his pH D and Pierre was like it's your turn, your turn get your PhD and she's like but I have a baby. He's like my dad's going to move in with us and take care of the baby baby and his dad was like um, an OBGYN who helped deliver the baby.

They were very close family and I don't know where the mom was and her mom had died many, many years ago and her dad was in Poland and she was like okay, here we go. I'm going to do something great. What? So she start looking? Well, that's the same with every PhD person right? What the heck am I G do time? Yeah, she couldn't get an advisor to give her advice. she had to come up with something on her own and come up to someone and say I have this great idea, put your name to it I'll do everything.

you just get the credit which is exactly what she did. So she looks and she finds the uranium rays and she's like huh Pierre And his brother had discovered the Pzo electric Effect. Electricity could change the pressure and pressure contains electricity electricity and he had made this little device that was like a scale which could determine incredibly small amounts of electricity because it would change the P The electricity put a battery you know, battery over the Gap and if the air was a little bit electrified, it would change the Paso thing and it would tilt a little bit and then you put the weight in the other side. Wow wow And you could measure incredibly small amount of electricity.

So she's like okay, why don't I use that and study uranium So she gets the uranium and she's doing all these chemical things am I crushing am I heating it Whatever she does, she gets the same amount of radiation which is the term she came up with because it was all the same and she's like okay, if this is a proper of uranium, other things must have this property Yes! So she starts looking around, she finds something else, but before she can publish, someone else says oh, I got X uranium Rays now they're calling them Beckel Rays with this thing and she's like okay, I'll just publish how radioactive it is compared to uranium because she has the scale and she says this thing is about as radioactive as uranium which is like I said the term she came up with Yes! so she publishes this. Her husband's like this is the best thing ever I'm quitting my job. We're just going to work together. So we they collect everything.
Nothing Nothing Nothing. Nothing Nothing Nothing Nothing Nothing Nothing. nothing. a whole bunch of nothing.

Until they get some uranium ore. Now uranium ore is a mixture of all sorts of things. Yeah, it's got. so they put it in there and it's way more radioactive than pure uranium.

Oh can you make a guess? Well I I'm not a physicist, but is it does it have different Um isotope things in it? or something? The or Am I CL Els in it. It's got different secret elements in it. not just uranium, but other things. So what they do is they take the uranium or they get like truckloads of uranium anymore.

They're crash it up, do all sorts of weird chemical experiments and they're like, is it more radioactive or less? is it more or less More or less? That's all they do and they discover something which I think it's called. um, she called polonium or it's not plutonium was named after home country of Poland that's very radioactive. but there's something else that's so radioactive that they call it radium. And the radium.

Once you distill it, it starts glowing green all the time and heating all the time. She describes like how romantic it was to work in this laboratory with these glowing green light green glow. oh my. God Please stop.

And then her husband starts putting it on his body as a way of testing the medical things of it. and it's just like oh my God just reading about it I'm y it's like a horror movie in the middle of a romance. It's so awful. Oh goodness Oh my.

God So yeah the and then and then I can go on and on and on I swear problem. So radium. Yes because she discovered yeah Ra. She got the no did she get the one of her Nobel prizes in was it chemistry for radium? the So the first one was she got two.

She won in two different fields, right? right? So what happened was the Nobel committee decided to give half an award to Beckel and half award for Pierre curri for Uranium Raay uh sorry Beckel Rays radiation and Pierre is like Fu no uh uh uh uh uh uh uh. this was my wife's this was my wife's job I Oh he he gave it to her. no he split it. What? Oh he split it with her oh wa oh is that she? Oh huh no he couldn't give it to her.

So what he said was I will not accept it without her. What they did was they split it in two. She got a fourth of a Nobel Prize a four of a she got a fourth of a Nobel Prize and Becko got a half. It's the weirdest I didn't know that was the case Okay because he was just like no, we'll just reject it.
we won't take it. I'm not accepting this without his wife. he was. he was a real and his love letters to his wife he was so poetic and so and so bright.

My God but also just like I'm just gonna let my wife shine as well is amazing. It was just amazing. Um, there's a romance book. There's a romance book in this for the female uh, audience out there.

So much romance because anyone who will put up with a physicist has to be an extraordinary extraordinary person. Really seriously like over and over and over again. there are extraordinary love stories because like I know that about my husband in order to put up with me extraordinary. everyone's like oh, you must be lovely.

you must be so much fun. It's like yeah and I forget everything and I'm half in this world and I'm half in the last World and I accidentally you know oh God you know, broke everything I forgot this was bro I forgot the birthday Yeah you you have to be extraordinary to put up with us I think it's true with Engineers too y like y very. Our spouses our children are always just extraordinary because they put up with us anyway. I'm saying that there's a uh huge Market there I'm saying the female Market of uh love you know Mills and Boon type Romance Noel if it were for 50 Shades of Gray or something.

Whatever it is, you know it's like it's a lot nicer than 50 Shades of Gray What What? I'm telling you there's Millions to be had. There's Millions to be had here. Physics Rance letters or just if I was you I would pivot I would pivot to from the physics books to the romance books I'm just saying physics Romance a some really small letters Physics Romance oh no I I am not joking this is that could be a huge Market I I I I just drives me nuts that everyone thinks we're so dull and we're so. I mean certainly there are plenty of dull people in the world.

There are plenty of dull Engineers there plenty of dull physicist I've met them. Oh boy, but they tend not to be great, right? You know what I mean Yeah, when you meet a great engineer, when you meet a great they weird, yeah, they they're Outcast they're but yep, we're artists. And because we're artists, we are quirky and weird and annoying and smelly and fascinating. We're always like that.

That's what we're like, right? Not all of us are smelly I'm smelly I'm I'm not making judgments on you I'm sure there were physicists who smelled delightful. Um I mean you know I bathe regularly I'm sorry, this is way too I I will get you out of this Did we did? We finish off the wheat filled thing cuz I I lost track. Did we did we tie in the wheat field thing? Oh so it tells us the the wheat field he's we field. did we tie that in? or did we tangent and just keep Tangen in until INF keep tanging we That's what I thought I thought it wasn't tied up.
Can we tie that up please before we go. Okay, okay, how much time do I have like five minutes? Oh yeah, five minutes. Let's tie it up in five minutes. Okay, tie up five minutes.

So he does nothing with it because he's a high school kid and then he gets a job. Um, joins the Army He quits the Army He gets a job working for some people and he impresses the hell out of them by fixing their car and he says they're like what are you up to young man He's like well I have an idea for electric television and they said well we have some money some for some damn fool idea. this seems like a damn fool idea. have some money.

So he marries his girlfriend. he moves in with his girlfriend and his brother-in-law to LA and starts trying to make a television by themselves. like learning how to solder and learning how to do it all themselves in some with the people who financed it and they're like get met by police like are you an anarchist making a bomb like no, we're making a television television. What's a tele right? Exactly exactly.

And they're failing and failing and failing. and they run out of money so they go. The backers go all over the place they end up going to. San Francisco They get some money from a banker there so they move to San Francisco back when you could do that back when you wanted to move to San Francisco Oh I'm from San Francisco I Love San Francisco San Francisco is the best, the most beautiful town and it is the most expensive town like Oh my God It is so expensive and yeah and it's yeah exactly and but anything I love I'm I'm from Sydney I know right? exactly you're like I love this and hate this at the same time.

like everything simultaneously. But anyway, so they're building this television and their backer is just complaining. complaining, complaining complaining. Finally, they get it to work and they get it to work with this tiny screen.

It must have been like 2 in by 2 in in right and the lights have to be so bright you can't show a person the first one. You could just show an image. So they had a little rectangular bar that they could move and you could see the rectangular bar move on the other side and one of them figured out that you could blow smoke over the image and you could see the Smoke on the other side. So they send a telegram to one of their original backers like the damn thing works.

So they get the back Banker to them and they're like we're going to show you a demonstration right? And the banker says what he always says which is when am I gonna see some damn cash out of your machine FW I Know how do we sell this widget? Come on right? So he turns it on and S shows an image of a dollar sign. Ah nice, nice, nice. And that's the television and that's how television was born. Wow! The first television image was a dollar sign square and then official dollar sign.
Yes, exactly. And then his wife became the first television star. He would film her and with like this heavy makeup to protect her from the sunlight. I was going to say the light is so bright.

yeah that and and she would just like move move and it wasn't the start, they just did that. Yeah and then there was a whole thing of like the whole thing of how the television thing and it was very complicated. but yeah, did did they end up refining it into anything better? Or did they just go into yes, What happened was he got a job with a company called um um Filco which he thought was Filco. ah yes and that was based in Philadelphia and they were horrible horrible.

The first op amp uh Bob uh for my audience Bob Uh. Peas famously worked for Filco I believe back in the early day developing Opam. so oh my. Anyway, the very beginning they sucked.

They sucked. Made every engineer work in a suit and tie which is what made me think of all this things. Wouldn't let his wife help even though she knew everything about how to do it because she learned with him NOP she can't do it. She had a horrible allergy, she was miserable, their child died, and they wouldn't let him take time off to go to the funeral I mean it was horrific.

and meanwhile the um uh in New York uh RCA was working on it with a guy named Vladimir Zorin and Vladimir Zorin made the oscilloscope as a precursor to the television yes which is what we used to make study radar and like everything I think that was his first use wasn't it was a radar type thing I don't know if it was actually as as an oscilloscope but I it was sold as something, right? Because when they used it for radar they had, they could just pick up one of these devices. So I think it was sold out. Okay, it would have Okay, yeah it would have and then they're like okay, someone read a report that you could take down planes with radio and they're like is it possible and they're like nope, No, it really isn't. but maybe you could see where the plane was.

Yeah, that could be useful. Yeah, yeah, exactly. Actually they snuck in and put a secret little piece of metal um like like um, little metal pieces on the back of the plane to make sure the radar would work. Oh I got cheated and they cheated.

but it turned out you didn't need to do that. But just in case we're going to put, we're gonna fake this right? Fake it. Have a transmitter there that right? Exactly exactly exactly. Smoke a mirrors demo? Yeah, that's this is great.

This is great. Oh unfortunately our empow is up I told you I told you I know I know I know but we do like to keep it to an hour these days. No. I'm really pleased.

thank you I said it's your job, it's not my job I I had no idea where this would go I I had no question, it just and we ended up the entire history of CRT development and and we tied it off with Bob Peas. Oh my goodness. and hey, Bob P want to talk to me? No? unfortunately he's no longer with us. Oh I'm sorry.
yeah yeah, no Bob peas. he? um yeah, like five. Oh God How long ago? Five. Seven years ago, um tragically died in a car accident on his way back from the funeral of um, oh, who was it? Another one of his mates, another famous Electronics guy? that's that's not right.

Yeah, no, it's not right. And ironically, he wrote a book on driving safely I sorry I can't make I I don't make this up it just like I tell you Science History is always the most dramatic, the most tragic, the most romantic, the most surreal ever, and the most coincidental. and the the most coincidental. everything.

No, no, no, no, no no, and there it's all tied together. Yeah, that's what our last episode was about was about how they're all intertwined like people think. you know, like Herz invented this and you know Maxwell invented this in their own little chamber. No, they're all intertwin, interacting and talking.

So if physicists don't say what they're doing, nothing gets developed and Engineers are talking. Yeah, exactly. Yep, Yep, it's thank you very much. Kathy when's the next book coming out? Oh God Who knows.

Okay? is it? Is it actually still not hold your breath? Is is it complete though? Oh God No. I mean not at all. It's it's meant complete. Maybe.

Uh, but that don't mean anything. Yeah. I'm in this big thing. I'm trying to fight pseudo science online because I'm so sick.

I I came up with this thing called The Box Mac and Cheese Method. Can I just tell you this tiny I know we're please I finish. Okay, you know if someone shows you a picture of like commercial for mac and macaron and cheese with the box and the bowl and they say and then they show you a bowl of pasta from fine dining right? And they say which one of these is fine dining, Anyone would know which one is fine dining right? right? Like fine dining looks pretty and doesn't come with a box, right? right? Yes. And obviously obviously.

So in my mind, there's tricks for the different kind of pseudo science that's commonly out there to help people go instead of knowing the rules. Know: like okay, if someone discovers some new experiment, they're going to tell you how it works because other people need to copy it and it doesn't really matter what their theory is because even if your experiment Works your theory isn't necessarily true, it's just a good guess, right? right? So if someone says I saw this great video where I charged my phone, Well someone charg their phone with an actual apple with a B Yeah, right? Okay, yes, which someone sent to me and said is this real this looks really good? Yeah, you could say okay. Look, do they explain how the experiment works and even if they do that doesn't necessarily mean that the apple is what's trying. You know, right? It's generating enough voltage to turn on the charge detection thing in the phone which then shows that it's charging.
but it's not. What it has is a secret battery in there because oh or all they all they good. All they these people are scam artists. Have you ever seen the electroboom video? Oh yes, yeah yeah yeah.

I've yeah. I've done I've done debunking videos of of scams like this right? right? But it's exhausting. It's exha I know I it's well the old saying that it it's an you need to expend an order of magnitude more energy to debunk something to debunk than to actually produce the in the first place. It's right.

and they're SK monitors for So Real They some of them aren't though some of them are. just think that they've cracked free energy. you know, and like they they just think they've cracked it right. and I think the people with an experiment are all scam artists because you need to hide a battery in there you need.

Well, no one, no one. I Debunked once which was an overunity free energy thing. Uh, the guy just didn't do the he. he produced this circuit which apparently you know with magnets it it actually produced more energy out than it put in it like leads would come on for a certain amount of time.

He just didn't do the measurements properly. he didn't account for all these other losses and stuff and and it's just like yeah he just like like it certainly wasn't a scam, it wasn't a scam, he just made engineering mistakes and in the measurements and he just didn't account for things and I did a whole video explaining you didn't account for this. This this and when you add them all up, there's your 100% there's your thing, but you were trying. You were trying but like yeah, but I know there's so many scams out there you can't even count them.

Oh, it's exhausting. So I'm trying to do something about that and we'll see if I can help at all. All right, please join the debunking community. There's not many of us out there.

there's only a handful. There's barely even a handful of us uh, debunkers out there on the debunk. I'm trying to be a grand debunker. We'll see what I can do.

Aw, awesome, we need it. Thank you very much. Kathy Where can people U follow you? Obviously I'll link your book in your website down below. You've got the audio book right as well.

No I haven't done it yet Oh I Thought that was done Oh I thought I was I'm doing a um gofund me for it

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21 thoughts on “Eevblog 1577 – history of cathode ray tubes with kathy joseph”
  1. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars M Red says:

    This woman is fantastic, thanks dave for the great work.

  2. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Amrish Hirani says:

    Happy Christmas days

  3. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Justin Richards says:

    Love the conversations with Kathy. Nicely done Dave.

  4. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Justin Richards says:

    I was once apposed to Halloween, but then I realised we dont have much interesting of our own going on so may as well borrow from other customs and traditions, Its just a bit o fun for 1 night after all.

  5. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Martin Pokorný says:

    Brilliant! Thank you!

  6. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars That other Guy says:

    And THAT is how you make an intro 😀 😀

  7. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Ronald Youvan says:

    Excellent show. Ron W4BIN

  8. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Patty O'Furniture says:

    Does anyone else remember that the TV Engineer who ended up being an alien in the move "OHF" was named "Philo Farnsworth" ?

  9. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Hola! jassenjj says:

    I really love it when 2 of my favorite youtubers unite to surprise me like this. Kathy's enthusiasm is so contagious. Love you guys!

  10. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Rod C says:

    Australia too American for you Dave? The Australian Nation was actually born out of the American Revolution; if the Americans had lost in 1776 the British would not have redirected their resources to the Southern Hemisphere; this continent today would most probably still be referred to as New Holland but inhabited with a dozen different nations all speaking various languages. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a copy of an American Bridge 'the Hells Gate Bridge'; Bradfield visited the Bridge before choosing the design; our nations Capital was designed by an American Walter Burley Griffin ; the Australian Constitution is largely based upon the US Constitution; we have an elected Senate, you won't find one of those in either Canada or Britain; we have States; the Mainland of the US and the Australian continent are nearly identical in size. And finally our future has been tied to the United States since WW2, if she falls we fall with her. Retailers in Australia now make a quarter of a billion dollars a year in chocolate sales from Halloween – its here to stay.

  11. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Jason Brindamour says:

    Fantastic episode Dave!

  12. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars calholli says:

    I listened to this whole thing at 2x speed. It makes her sound even more enthusiastic and urgently getting the story out.
    It's the perfect speed to watch this. 🙂

  13. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Slartibartfas042 says:

    WOW, Kathy's style of telling the whole story of history is amazing ! I've never heard any story of history in such an interesting, such a thrilling but still totally truethful way, especially respecting that whole talk was "out of the back of my mind"….
    So cool. THANK YOU for that AmpHour talk! ❤👌👍And – PLEASE, don't make it on yearly base. You can make it MONTHLY! 😉

  14. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Pete Genius says:

    I am in England and I to hate all the American terminology, what can you expect from people who drive on the wrong side of the road.

  15. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Brandon Poulton says:

    So incredibly inspiring!!! Thanks Kathy for sharing your passion with us!!!

  16. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Electro Tinkerer sheikhmishar says:

    "….Can you please make sure everything works????" 😂😂🤣🤣🤣

  17. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Electron bolt says:

    She never said who and when they figured out they had to put a heater to boil off electrons in the tube

  18. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Harrie Hausenman says:

    Brilliant collab! so fun to watch 🤗

  19. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Dave Turner says:

    Back in the 50s & early 60s I remember foot X-rays in Timpsons. A well known shoe company in the UK. I was upset when they were banned. Nowadays, of course I understand why.

  20. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars TOXI_com says:

    ERIC DOLLARD talked about this years ago. FREEMAN FLY (occult youtuber) talked about this years before DOLLARD.

  21. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Tim Savage says:

    Love Kathy's channel. Her excitement of the topic and story telling is infectious.

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